Monchegorsk ecology of beautiful tundra

Kozlov, M.V., Haukioja, E. & Yarmishko, V.T. (Eds).
Aerial pollution in Kola Peninsula: Proceedings of the International Workshop,
April 14-16, 1992, St.Petersburg. Apatity, 1993, pp. 119-147


Soil contaminatioon by nickel and copper in area polluted by "Severonikel" smelter complex


Valery Sh.Barkan, Rimma P.Pankratova, Anna V.Silina
Lapland Biosphere Reserve, 184280 Monchegorsk, Murmansk region, Russia
Murmansk Regional Laboratory of Arkhangelsk Forest Institute, 184280 Monchegorsk, Murmansk region, Russia

Abstract

Data on metal content in forest podzol soils (illuvial ferriferous rich humus) and sphagnum peat bogs affected by aerial emissions are given. The polluted territory exceeded 3000 km2. The nickel and copper concentrations within 10-12 km radius were 50-80 times higher compared with the unpolluted territories. Content of metals in sphagnum peat bogs correlated with ones in forest soils from the same plots; thus, the bogs are very convenient objects for the analyze of metal accumulation.

1. Introduction

The "Severonikel" smelter complex is situated in Monchegorsk (latitude 680N), the Kola Peninsula, at the border of the northern taiga and near-tundra forest zones. The annual pollution in 1987 into the atmosphere was 2.2-2.4 x 108kg of S02 and 8-10 x 106kg of nickel and copper (Anonymous, 1988). Heavy metals are emitted in the form of metallurgical dust and aerosols. The pollutants are dispersed over distances of tens to hundreds of kilometres from the smelter. The deposition pattern of metal-containing compounds is determined by the size of particles, wind direction and relief of the territory.
The effects of pollutants emitted during 50 years of operation are disastrous for the environment. About 25000 ha of forest are completely destroyed, and about 45000 ha are significantly damaged and will most likely decline in 15-20 years. Around 400000 ha of forest already showed signs of damage (Tsvetkov, 1990a). The border of complete forest destruction last years moved 1 km annually, but recently the speed increased up to 2-3 km.
The environmental pollution in surroundings of Monchegorsk were studied by many researchers (Alestchukin, 1972; Doncheva, 1976, 1978; Boltneva e.a., 1978; Kashulina, 1982, 1988; Evdokimova, 1984,1985, 1985; Karaban e.a., 1985; Tsvetkov, 1985, 1990; Kryuchkov & Makarova, 1989; Alexeyev, 1990; Norin & Yarmishko, 1990). Increase of the content of heavy metals close to the smelter was repeatedly reported, but only fragmentary data (mostly restricted to the road St.-Petersburg - Murmansk) have been published.
The aim of this study is to outline zones with different levels of soil contamination by nickel and copper. More than half of collected soil samples are not analyzed yet, and the complete results will be published elsewhere.

2. Materials and methods

The soil samples were collected around "Severonikel" smelter complex, mostly in forests, but also inside the town of Monchegorsk and on sphagnum peat bogs.
Exchangeable acidity and mobile aluminium were determined from a IN NaCl extract according to Sokolov, total titratable acidity from a NR, acetate extract according to Kappen, exchangeable calcium and magnesium by titration with EDTA from a IN NaCl extract, the organic matter content according to the Tiurin method, total nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium according to Kirsanov, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen according to Cornfilde. For the descriptions of methods, see Arinushkina (1970) and Sokolov (1975).
The total Ni and Cu contents were determined after ashing the samples at 450-5000 and extraction with acid by colorimetric method after complexation with dimethylglyoxime for Ni, and by reaction with lead diethyl carbamate after extraction with chloroform for Cu (Anonymous, 1988).

Results and Discussion

It is generally accepted that exchangeable cations are leached from the exchange sites in the soil as a result of acidic deposition, and change subsequently take place in the nutrient balance of the soil. This is especially the case for Ca, Mg, N and K. In our case, however, a clear relationship between the basic/acidic properties of the soil and deposition levels could only be demonstrated in areas where the pollution level is very high, i.e. at distances of less than 10 km from the complex. However, no signs of acidification were found on such plots. The soils investigated in this study are naturally very acidic: the pH of the A0 horizon 3.0-3.5, but in the deeper layers less acidic (4.3-5.4) (Tab. 2.)
The Ni and Cu contents of all the affected soils were very high, especially in the A0 horizon (Tabs 3-4). 40-50 km NE of the complex, concentrations in the A0 herizon were 2-3 times higher compared with the background levels; 30 km S - 20 times; 10-12 km 50-80 times higher. Total accumulation, i.e. the amount of Ni and Cu in a whole soil profile down to a subsoil, exceeded the background level 8-9 times on some of the most severely polluted plots. In general, the Ni and Cu contents fell with increasing distance from the smelter; the fluctuations of contents are due to terrain factors (Figs 1-2).







Nickel and copper emissions from the complex increased 3.5 times during the past 20 years, and a sudden increase of 2-2.5 times was occurred in 1982 (Anonymous, 1980, 1981, 1987, 1988). The deposition of Ni and Cu on the soil surface obviously greatly exceeds the natural leaching of these metals, and the contents of Ni and Cu increased rapidly (Tab. 1). The level of Ni in the upper soil layer increased 1.5-2, Cu - 2-6 times during 10 years. The greater increase in Cu contents is due to the sharp rise of copper emissions during 1980-88. The content of nickel and copper in sphagnum peat bogs (Tab. 5) was at the same level as in the forest soils from the same plots (Tab. 2). Thus, sphagnum peat bogs are very convenient objects for estimation of heavy metal accumulation: they are widely distributed at Kola Peninsula, sampling and treatment are less laborous, and variation is lower compared with forest soils.



Table 1
The increase of metal contents in the organic layer on plots located close to the smelter during 10 years.
/ Plot position CategoryContent, mg/kg dry soil
dis- azimuthnickel copper
km ()1979 1988ratio 19791988 ratio
16180Fumes186025731.486320792.4
22.5270Clearing107713341.23994861.2
3315Fumes447692882.1181442622.3
41.5290Meadow130627982.145815523.4
52.515Eroded*2403471.41116535.9
* Analyses done on the horizon.


Conclusions

Emissions of metal-containing dust from "Severonikel" smelter complex over 50-year period resulted in the soil contamination by nickel and copper over the area >3000 km2, including the half of territory of the Lapland Biosphere Reserve. The concentrations of Ni and Cu rapidly increased close to the smelter; within 10-12 km radius, metal content in the A0 horizon was 50-80 times higher compared with the background level.



Table 2
Chemical properties of the soils
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
Organic
matter
content
%
Total
Nitrogen
%
Ph Acidity Exchan
geable
bases
Exchan
geable
aluminium
Satura
tion
base
%
P K Alkaline
hydrolis.
Nitrogen
H20 KCI exchan
geable
total
titratable
Ca Hg
meg per 100 g
of dry matter
meg per 100 g
of dry matter
Vacciniun Vitis-Idaea pine forest
Ao49.00.704.33.311.261.110.02.38.5179.02657
31.0-58.40.2-0.94.0-4.63.1-3.57.7-15.751.2-79.26.2-16.51.4-4.25.1-14.714-276-1413-13339-79
A22.70.074.33.81.75.70.30.11.670.20.86
1.5-4.70.01-0.14.1-5.23.3-4,20.9-2.92.6-10.00.1-0.8tr.-0.1418-2.82-190.06-0.60.4-1.64-17
3.20.085.24.80.75.50.30.030.762.00.49
1.6-5.60.02-0.154.8-5,74.6-5.20.2-2.13.2-9.50.03-0.7tr.-0.060.1-2.01-190.8-5.60.4-1.24-16
1.10.055.25.00.42.70.20.060.493.00.85
0.5-2.00.02-0.15.1-6.14.5-5.40.1-1.31.2-4.20.03-0.5tr.-0.20.1-1.32-211.4-7.40.4-3.64-8
0.60.045.94.90.31.60.20.030.2135.00.44
0.3-1.10.01-0.15.4-6.44.6-5.30.1-0.90.7-2.7tr.-0.2tr.-0.70.1-1.03-350.6-110.1-1.22-7
Eupetrum apruce forest
Ao66.41.004.13.29.480.513.21.84.71610.03082
53.7-73,70.7-1.14.0-4.43.0-3.49.0-11.072.9-92.17.8-17.50.4-2.83.4-6.110-205.6-21.418-5247-122
A23.00.084.33.42.16.10.20.041.840.21.29
1.5-5.20.03-0.24.2-4.63.2-3.70.8-4.22.9-8.8.07-.40.02-0.080.6-4.02-7tr.-0.80.4-1.63-17
7.10.175.14.42.111.40.20.031.121.50.812
3.6-11.90.05-0.304.8-5.44.1-4.60.4-2.65.6-19.70.1-0.40.02-0.040.4-2.51-40.8-2.80.4-1.66-17
2.00.075.64.80.24.40.20.020.251.50.48
0.7-4.40.02-0.155.1-6.04.6-5.20.1-0.43.4-8.20.1-0.35tr.-0.40.1-0.41-90.6-3.60.4-0.83-11
C 1.00.055.94.80.22.70.30.030.2113.50.45
0.4-1.70.01-0.15.1-6.44.5-5.00.1-0.51.6-4.70.1-0.5tr.-0.060.1-0.52-251.2-5.80.4-0.82-9
Felled areas
Ao61.40.943.281.610.81.9139.02556
51.3-61.40.52-1.183.1-3.469.8-89.38.4-14.50.6-3.610-176.0-14.420-3246-73
A22.20.073.45.00.20.0450.40.85
1.5-3.60.03-0.103.3-3.63.8-6.90.2-0.3tr.-0.074-70.2-0.60.4-1.23-7
5.80.144.57.90.20.0331.50.811
3.6-8.80.05-0.244.1-4.94.4-9.80.1-0.3tr.-0.081-41.0-2.20.4-1.26-17
2.38.074.94.90.20.0242.00.47
1.4-4.40.02-0.144.6-5.23.6-8.7tr.-0.4tr.-0.041-100.2-2.00.4-0.83-11
0.60.034.92.90.10.0145.00.43
0.2-0.90.02-0.054.6-5.21,6-3.20.06-0.3tr.-0.021-140.2-2.8tr.-1.22-4
Burnt areas
Ao55.00.863.372.78.51.0126.01355
46.6-66.30.51-0.953.1-3.547.4-89.33.0-12.00,4-1.94-170.8-3.44.4-2434-82
A22,70.074.25.30.20.0550.20.48
1.2-6.40.04-0.153.3-4.73.1-9.60.06-0.50.01-0.12-120.4-3.4tr.-1.24-20
5.50.204.59.60.30.0331.20.811
2.5-7.80.09-0.494.1-4.96.5-14.1tr.-0.5tr.-0.071-120.6-2,40.4-1.27-14
3.60.095.14.40.20.0252.60.47
0.6-7.00.03-0.274.7-5.31.9-9.1tr.-0.5tr.-0.082-100.8-5.0tr.-0.83-14
C1.10.054.92.60.150.0264.20.44
0.2-4.00.01-0.144.7-5.41.4-3.90.06-0.4tr.-0.052-100.6-10.4tr.-0.82-9


3
Accumulation of nickel and copper of the forest soils
/ Place and year of collection Plot position in relation to the smelter Horizon Horizon thickness cm Metal content mg/kg Total content in soil column of 1 m2, g The share in the horizon, %
km degrees Ni Cu Ni Cu Ni Cu
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 V. vltis-idaea Pine forest, 1989 200 o96602407.12.6
2 Mossy swamp Pine forest, 1989 1615 o1368072510.611.3
3 V. vltis-idaea Pine forest, 1986 1045 o102445117436.717.637.442.0
252005011.62.911.86.9
101452415.22.515.56.0
151237719.412.219.829.1
101094815.26.715.516.0
5098.141.9100.0100.0
4 The same, 1986 1245 o52720109021.88.728.724.7
252255413.13.117.28.8
1090459.54.712.513.4
20865418.111.323.832.1
10965313.57.417.821.0
5076.035.2100.0100.0
5 The same, 1986 2045 o55042384.01.69.49.6
251390.80.51.93.0
15652610.34.124.224.6
151023815.86.037.235.9
10833211.64.527.326.9
5042.516.7100.0100.0
6 The same, 1988 5045 o3112380.50.24.03.5
A252461.40.311.55.4
1932156.43.052.553.6
1028153.92.131.037.5
3712.25.6100.0100.0
7 The same, 1986 3055 o3260821.30.45.82.8
2276231.80.58.02.5
597495.12.622.618.2
1030443.14.613.632.2
10804411.36.250.043.3
3022.614.3100.0100.0
8 V. vitls-idaea Pine foreet, 1987 4660 o373340.30.21.72.0
251080.60.53.35.0
182995.51.730.616.8
2922157.75.242.751.4
1028183.92.521.724.8
6518.010.1100.0100.0
9 The same, 1990 1064 o117304309.65. 725.939.6
23104143.70.510.03.5
25381611.44.830.733.3
10952612.43.433.423.6
4937.114.4100.0100.0
10 The same, 1989 2070 o52901301.70.8
11 Spruce forest with pine and birch, 1990 9 80 o154202707.64.913.030.1
23126304.51.17.76. 7
10922411.02.918.817.8
684496.03.510.321.5
101153015.03.925.623.9
4458.516.3100.0100.0
12 Spruce forest with birch, 1990 1587 o10170502.00.6
13 The same, 1989 1094 o105802207.02.6
14 V. myrtlllus Pine forest, 1990 1193 o73101502.61.37.06.0
A2540232.41.46.46.4
1080629.67.425.733.9
878407.53.820.117.5
101176115.27.940.836.2
4037.321.8100.0100.0
15 Spruce forest with birch, 1990 1393 o122401003.51.411.210.2
2756164.71.215.08.8
1250397.25.623.040.9
572264.31.613.711.7
10893011.63.937.128.5
4631.313.7100.0100.0
16 Birch forest, 1990 1594 o9170701.80.84.86.0
2372132.60.56.93.7
110891810.72.228.516.4
21064217.72.520.518.7
1064257.73.020.522.4
41054347.04.418.732.8
5237.513.4100.0100.0
17 V. vitis-idaea Pine forest, 1990 11107 o151701603.12.96.715.0
2878107.51.016.25.2
1151092819.65.042.425.9
215895816.010.434.653.9
5346.219.3100.0100.0
18 The same, 1988 12 125 o63151422.81.316.28.1
2171252.31.013.36.2
2332287.76.744.541.6
1618223.54.222.226.1
108241.02.95.818.0
7217.316.1100.0100.0
19 The same, 1989 16 125 o10143501.70.6
20 V. vitls-idaea Spruce forest, 1989 18 145 o10220882.61.1
21 Empetrum Spruce forest, 1989 15 150 o1083032010.03.8
22 V. vitis-idaea Pine forest, 1987 25 150 o52311031.70.810.89.5
251871.00.46.34.8
30351311.04.169.648.8
1015222.13.113.336.9
5015.88.4100.0100.0
23 V. vitls-idaea Spruce forest, 1989 30 170 o124001385.82.0
24 Burnt area, 1988 6 180 o5257320796.45.216.620.3
22155633.71.59.65.9
101355413.55.435.021.1
1352428,16.621.025.7
1048496.96.917.827.0
4038.625.6100.0100.0
25 Empetrum Spruce forest, 1988 8 180 o63960196011.95.924.023.6
24122425.92.012.08.0
101606516.06.532.326.0
1362399.76.119.624.4
1043326.04.512.118.0
4349.525.0100.0100.0
26 Burnt area, 1988 8180 o2291518502.91.95.88.4
2469443.32.16.79.3
161025416.38.633.038.3
14662811.14.722.520.9
101133715.85.232.023.2
4649.422.5100.0100.0
27 Burnt area, 1988 10180 o5257020806.45.216.720.5
22155633.71.59.65.9
101355413.55.435.221.2
1352428.16.621.126.0
1049496.76.717.426.4
4038.425.4100.0100.0
28 Empetrum Spruce forest, 1986 14190 o46332211.30.43.03.5
2365162.30.65.56.3
91153010.42.724.823.9
71293710.83.125.727.4
101233217.24.541.039.8
3342.011.3100.0100.0
29 The same, 1986 16180 o5496951.20.23.71.2
2468123.20.610.13.8
978267.02.321.414.6
12894212.86.039.138.0
1061488.56.725.742.4
4032.715.8100.0100.0
30 Felled area, 1989 16180 o57293851.81.05.84.6
2674185.31.317.06.0
1534305.14.516.420.7
19463910.58.933.841.0
1060438.46.027.027.7
5531.121.7100.0100.0
31 Burnt area, 1988 16 180 o215758441.60.84.04.5
A2549122.90.77.23.9
151274519.16.847.338.0
17513010.26.025.233.5
1047266.63.616.320.1
4940.417.9100.0100.0
32 Felled area, 1988 16180 o64812031.40.64.74.3
2472113.40.511.33.6
1469189.S2.532.218.2
1078449.45.331.238.4
1044356.24.920.635.5
4430.113.8100.0100.0
33 Burnt area, 1987 16 185 o116407150.80.44.44.3
2102321.20.46.64.3
1752211.20.46.64.3
1255255.02.327.324.5
1049321.74.638.748.5
4018.39.4100.0100.0
34 Burnt area, 1986 20 180 o55942051.50.53.72.8
2443122.10.65.23.4
14784010.95.627.231.3
12933513.45.033.327.9
10884412.36.230.634.6
4540.217.9100.0100.0
35 The same, 1988 21 180 o69904403.01.314.26.3
2649113.50.816.43.9
1341335.34.324.920.8
1428444.77.422.035.7
1034494.86.922.533.3
4921.320.7100.0100.0
36 Felled area, 1988 21180 o311006601.71.09.25.8
A253051.80.39.61.7
1438225.33.128.317.9
1640436.77.235.841.6
1023413.25.717.133.0
4818.717.3100.0100.0
37 Burnt area, 1988 21180 o48404301.70.99.75.2
244061.90.310.81.7
1335384.65.026.128.4
939484.25.223.929.5
1037445.26.229.535.2
5017.617.6100.0100.0
38 Empetrum spruce forest, 1987 23180 o511825123.01.38.87.0
2650143.61.010.75.3
1556278.44.124.821.9
14643810.86.432.034.2
1057428.05.923.731. 6
5033.818.7100.0100.0
39 Felled area, 1987 24180 o46573101.30.67.24.0
253792.20.512.23.3
1048344.83.426.522.7
1437366.26.234.241.3
1026313.64.319.928.7
4318.115.0100.0100.0
40 Burnt area, 1988 24180 o28454850.80.53.53.3
254792.80.512.03.3
21512410.75.045.933.1
1035324.23.818.025.2
1034384.85.320.635.1
4823.315.1100.0100.0
41 Empetrum Spruce forest, 1986 32185 o86622072.60.89.28.8
A21030123.61.412.615.6
1339115.11.418.015.6
17601412.22.943.032.2
1035184.92.517.227.8
5828.49.0100.0100.0
42Burnt area top of slope, 198834180o32751550.40.23.22.5
231590.50.34.03.8
1221142.52.519.831.6
1825115.42.442.930.4
1027183.82.530.131.7
4612.67.9100.0100.0
43Burnt area bottom of slope, 198834180o33301550.50.34.73.3
2712131.01.19.512.2
1115141.71.516.016.7
152114 3.82.535.827.8
1026223.63.634.040.0
4610.69.0100.0100.0
44Empetrum Spruce forest, 198834180o106002103.01.027.011.5
2812111.21.110.812.7
1010171.01.79.019.5
1325123.91.835.220.7
1014222.03.118.035.6
5110.68.7100.0100.0
45Felled area, 198834180o73202001.10.711.37.5
25133.50.80.28.22.1
113321.53.62.437.225.5
1010251.23.012.431.9
1021.522.13.03.130.933.0
439.79.4100.0100.0
46V. myrtillus spruce forest, 199032188O20130703.11.712.8
A2348151.70.57.0
1063427.63.031.2
15612511.94.949.0
4824.312.1100.0
47Pine forest on burnt area, 199011195o313005804.72.1
48Empetrum Spruce forest, 199012195o13670220
49V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199031193o101201881.42 .3
50The same, 199033196o73401702.91.4
51V. myrtillus and Empetrum Spruce forest, 199023197o54202602.51.6
52V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199025197o54002902.41.7
53The same, 199027197o112401003.21.3
54 The same, 199026197 o122751754.02.6
2103384.01.0
30321211.54.3
55The same, 199027197o83201903.11.8
56The same, 199024202o81401001.31.0
57 Felled area, 198824200 o6121751.10.74.74.9
252061.20.35.22.1
1554288.54.436.531.0
1546348.36.135.643.0
1030194.22.718.019.0
5123.314.2100.0100.0
58V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199033200o20110382.60.9
59The same, 199033200o13180702 .81.1
60Pine forest on burnt area, 199010205o103251403.91.7
61Empetrum Spruce forest, 199025205o56002003.61.212.08.8
245092.40.48.02.9
72792.30.87.75.8
11904611.96.139.744.5
1075399.5.232.738.0
3730.013.7100.0100.0
62V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199025207o45503902.61.9
63The same, 199027208o54501302.70.86.52.4
2545102.70.66.51.8
13775112.08.028.724.0
13928914.413.934.541.8
10777810.010.023.930.0
46 41.833.3100.0100.0
64The same, 199023210o131101101.71.78.414.5
2330101.10.45.43.4
1047165.61.927.716.2
53181.90.59.44.3
1076559.97.249.061.5
4120.211.7100.0100.0
65The same, 199025210o56602904.01.722.315.5
2526101.60.68.95.5
1429264.94.427.440.0
359242.10.911.78.2
1041265.33.429.630.2
3717.911.0100.100.
66 The same, 199027 212o53701602.21.07.65.1
A2736103.00.810.44.1
1243336.24.621.524.5
10946911.38.339.242.3
1047366.14.721.224.0
4428.819.6100.0100.0
67V. myrtillus Pine forest, 199032212o61401801.01.3
68Empetrum Spruce forest, 199010221o64001132.90.8
69The same, 199013220o10310753.70.9
70V. myrtillus Pine and Spruce forest, 199032218o15150602.71.1
71V. myrtillus Pine forest, 199032223o11160602.10.8
72 V. vitis-idaea Pine forest, 1990 53220o546230.30.21.94.1
2101071.20.87.716.3
202274.61.529.730.6
153586.31.440.728.6
102273.11.020.020.4
6015.54.9100.0100.0
73Green moss Spruce forest, 199035224o1160280.80.4
74Lichen Pine forest, 199031227o4140500.70.2
75V. vitis-idaea Pine forest, 199035227o1180401.10.5
76The same, 199038230o138081.20.1
77Spruce forest with birch, 199040231o890320.90.3
78Empetrum spruce forest, 199011235o84101383.81.3
79Heat Pine forest, 1990322350370380.30.2
80Pine forest with birch, 199045233o945100.50.13.40.6
A21333105.11.635.210.1
1137294.93.833.823.9
2029337.07.948.349.7
1050187.02.548.315.7
6324.515.9100.0100.0
81V. myrtillus Pine forest, 199030238o260240.20.10.30.8
2750104.20.89.08.8
14701311.82.225.524.3
15751613.52.929.031.9
20701316.83.136.234.2
5846.59.1100.0100.0
82Pine forest with birch, 199037238o590380.50.3
83The same, 199048237o545200.30.10.80.9
2643123.10.98.79.1
20581513.93.638.836.4
20581513.93.638.836.4
1035134.61.712.917.2
84V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 19909240o12175752.51.1
85Empetrum Spruce forest, 199010243o10145631.70.8
86V. myrtillus Pine forest, 199029244o5130500.80.3
87The same, 199033245o3140240.50.1
88Heat Pine forest, 199047240o590220.50.11.51.1
293363.60.711.07.5
1361209.53.128.933.3
15611911.03.433.436.6
1064158.32.025.221.5
5232.99.3100.0100.0
89 Licken Pine forest, 1990 53240o940180.40.21.31.3
A2840474.44.514.830.2
2728139.1 4.230.628.2
1267289.6 4.032.326.8
1048156.2 2.020.913.4
6629.714.9100.0100.0
90 The same, 1987 80245o235190.10.10.71.4
241980.9 0.46.58.4
2624116.6 3.047.561.4
1045106.3 1.445.328.8
4013.9 4.9100.0100.0
91 Empetrum Spruce forest, 1987 80247o1013140.10.10.60.8
271371.1 0.67 .15.4
3033219.9 6.364.356.3
1031304.3 4.227.937.5
5715.411.2100.0100.0
92 V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 1990 9250 o83251203.1 1.212.119.0
234071.4 0.35.54.8
192565.7 1.422.322.2
4022510.6 2.441.338.1
103784.8 1.018.615.9
8025.6 6.3100.0100.0
93 V. myrtillus Pine forest, 1990 25253o470400.30.21.64.1
234891.7 0.38.96.1
945134.9 1.425.728.6
1064147.7 1.740.334.7
1035104.5 1.323.626.5
3619.1 4.9100.0100.0
94 The same, 1990 29256o8100501.00.5
2475103.60.5
1533115.92.0
15722113.03.8
95Empetrum Spruce forest, 199033257o10100261.20.3
96V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199035258 o780250.70.2
97The same, 199034260o680200.60.1
98Tundra1990, 40265o6110250.80.2
99 Empetrum Spruce forest, 1990 9265o14150502.50.812.118.6
232450.90.24.44.7
133845.90.628.714.0
1342126.61.932.044.1
103664.70.822.818.6
5320.64.3100.0100.0
100V. myrtillus and Empetrum Spruce forest, 199042265o3130200.50.1
101V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199036277o530250.20.1
102The same, 199037282o760380.50.3
o718100.20.1
103The same, 199038283o1580381.40.7
104The same, 199040290o1090141.10.2
105Pine forest on burnt area, 199021300o4100500.50.3
106V. myrtillus Spruce forest, 199027300o880220.80.2
107Birch forest on burnt area, 199019315o1880504.32.3
108 Heat Pine forest, 1990 8324 o51902502.93.83.812.2
A2589205.31.27.03.9
181284627.69.936.531.7
201264130.29.839.831.4
1075499.86.5-12.920.8
5875.831.2100.0100.0
109 Pine and birch forest, 1990 12323o82401805.84.314.720.5
A22250.60.21.50.7
18471810.23.925.918.6
1844149.53.024.114.3
101027413.39.633.845.7
5639.421.0100.0100.0
110V. vitis-idaea, 199018 328o7263882.20.7
111Heat Pine forest, 199010 330 o1475033031.513.9
112V. myrtillus and Empetrum Spruce forest, 199016 330o17260705.31.4
113 Pine forest on burnt area, 199021331 o8130483.11.29.210.4
A28540.50.41.53.5
1516100.91.88.615.7
15702012.63.637.431.3
15812514.64.543.339.1
6133.711.5100.0100.0
114 V. myrtillus Pine forest, 1990 26330o53101201.90.718.118.0
A234891.70.316.27.7
152254.00.938.123.1
15641.10.710.517.9
1014101.81.317.133.3
4810.53.9100.0100.0
115Empetrum Spruce forest, 199028333 o9110401.20.4
116Pine and birch forest, 199028336 o7160503.41.112.615.9
A266164.81.217.817.4
1360169.42.534.836.2
Bs44124.21.215.617.4
104075.20.919.313.1
4427.06.9100.0100.0
117Heath Pine forest, 199032337 o6180603.21.116.020 8
B123474.91.024.518.9
BC152664.71.123.520.8
252477.22.136.039.6
5820.05.3100.0100.0






Table 4
Accumulation of nickel and copper in the soils of urban and suburban territories
/ Place and tine
of samples gathering
Location of plot
relatively to the smelter
Horizon Horizon
thickness
Content,
mg/kg
Quantity in a soil column,
having sg. 1 sg.m
Distribution upon
genetic horizons, %
km degreee Ni Cu Ni Cu Ni Cu
123456789101112
1Oats field, 1988445A(till)8-20357 159
2 Headow (embanknent of Lunbolka lake) 19884.5 50 A(till)0-1
1-5
5-20
2425
975
204
1566
639
63
2Spruce forest (town park) 19884.5 55Ao71327 7264.62.515.4 30.9
A2-B102673.10.810.49.9
B20811316.22.654.432.0
1042165.92.219.827.2
4729.88.1100.0100.0
4 Spruce forest (after-work
Banatotiua), 1988
555Ao716019055.63.217.319.8
A254972.90.49.02.5
40281311.25.234.732.0
2029197.04.621.728.4
1040205.62.817.317.3
8232.316.2100.0100.0
5Pine-burch forest, top of slope
(Forest Inst. Station), 1986
665 Ao5134564010.14.818.824.0
A2492264.21.27.96.0
797337.12.413.312.0
161123121.56.040.330.0
10754010.55.619.728.0
4253.420.0100.0100.0
6The same place,
Bottom of slope, 1986
665Ao7102546410.84.922.719.8
A2645133.10.96.53.6
18583010.08.721.023.0
15734213.17.627.630.8
10754010.55.622.222.6
5647.524.7100.0100.0
7Vaccinium vitis-idaea pine forest,
(Moncha settlement), 1988
4 80Ao2559029722.111.148.544.8
A2-B568133.90.78.52.8
30402812.68.827.635.5
1050307.04.227.635.5
7045.624.8100.0100.0
8The same
(Moncha settlement), 1988
580Ao 86523867.84.616.212.3
A2 337121.30.42.71.1
50443223.116.847.848.0
2038479.111.318.830.3
1050307.04.214.511.3
9148.337.3100.0100.0
9 The same (Moncha settlement), 1988 680Ao48713875.22.315.810.2
A245072.30.37.01.3
25484217.615.553.568.6
1056327.84.523.719.9
5332.922.6100.0 100.0
10The same(Ridje-bay settl.), 198812125Ao63151422.81.316.28.1
A2171252.31.013.36.2
2332287.76.744.541.6
1618223.54.222.226.1
108241.02.95.818.0
5332.922.6100.0 100.0
11Technogenic heath
(Grass lake), 1988
20Ao32499189875.057.048.553.2
A23242961833.79.32.48.7
619846511.927.97.726.1
132194434.26.922.26.4
102124329.76.019.25.6
5332.922.6100.0 100.0
12 Burnt area, 198830Ao59288462223.211.618.516.8
A231201714.36.23.58.9
1026020626.020.120.828.9
1427816146.727.037.238.8
101803325.24.620.06.6
5332.922.6100.0 100.0
13 Meadow (Reed lake), 19881.5296Ao7279815529.85.413.418.6
A2396113.54.04.813.8
91564314.04.119.214.2
121775625.58.134.9 27.9
10 1445320.27.427.7 25.5
4173.0 29.0100.0 100.0
14Felled area (Slope of Nittis hill), 19882.5270Ao113344864.71.711.59.3
A2485224.11.110.06.0
898337.82.619.214.2
15
15Enpetrun spruce forest, 19863245Ao418074413.60.94.18.5
23157335.71.26.411.3
101442114.42.116.319.8
112412231.82.936.027.4
102352532.93.537.233.0
3888.410.6100.0 100.0




Table 5
Accumulation of nickel and copper by genetic horizons of sphagnum bog soil
No of bog
(forest) site*
Place and time
of samples gathering
Plot position Horizon depth Content, mg/kg
distance km azimuth () cm Ni Cu
1234 567
1
(1)
Moncha lake -
Sukhoy porog, 1989
2000-51600900
5-1021050
15-2012525
2
(2)
Moncha lake -
Pivnus-bay, 1989
1615 0-59005702
5-1040075
10-1529050
15-2018030
3Koim lake, 199019 700-5275189
5-1014868
10-15133124
15-2013868
4
(10)
Imandra lake -
Pustay bay, 1989
20700-58022
5-10
10-153038
15-2012525
5
(15)
Imandra lake -
Moncha bay, SW shore, 1990
980 0-5503302
5-1018047
10-155434
15-203310
6
(14)
Imandra lake -
Moncha bay, NE shore, 1990
1079 0-5505305
5-10340106
10-1521567
15-208368
7Big Imandra lake -
(opposite Koim island), 1990
1485 0-5200169
5-10205100
10-1515033
15-205241
8
(15)
Big Imandra lake - Moncha bay,
left shore, Alder cape, 1990
1394 0-5652290
5-1024090
10-1515035
15-205419
9
(17)
Imandra lake -
Beaver bay, 1990
11106 0-5450380
5-10355192
10-1525584
15-2010956
10
(46)
Lower Chuna river -
the mouth, 1990
32186 0-527594
5-1014350
10-158835
15-295539
11
(48)
Ostrovskoye lake,
West shore, 1990
12190 0-51400
5-10290
10-15240
12
(28)
Vitte river,
the mouth, 1990
14190 0-51225 500
5-1050 18
10-1550 19
13
(51,52)
Kenzis-yavr (lake), 1990 23197 0-5513222
5-10218 220
10-1565 58
14
(55)
El-yavr (lake),
the North end, 1990
26.5197 0-5450150
5-10300 106
10-15240 91
15
(55)
El-yavr (lake),
the North end, 1990
27197 0-5425125
5-1083 58
10-1535 50
15-2060 53
16
(47)
Ostrovekoye lake,
the East shcra, 1990
11.5 203 0-52500 1634
5-10275 129
10-15108 30
15-2065 17
17
(55)
Tulp lake,
the South shore, 1990
23.5202 0-5700294
5-10218 68
10-15100 38
15-2075 36
18
(60)
Vitte river,
the left bank, 1990
10210 0-51375
5-10425
10-15350
19
(102)
Kupes lake,
near the cordon, 1990
37282 0-520 12
5-1015 13
10-1515 12
15-2013 15
20
(104)
Nyavka lake,
NE bay , 1990
40290 0-523 12
5-10139
10-1513 8
15-20136
21Sig lake, 1990 33298 0-53027
5-1030 18
10-1535 18
15-2013 19
*Samples from the forest sites (for the compareson) are numbered according to Tab. 4




References

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